DCMP Captioning Key
This appendix is a research document which contains a conglomerate of studies related to both children and adults and how they view, read, and prefer captions. Initially, it seems to be common sense that verbatim captioning is the ideal, the mark of true equal access. However, it may be possible for spoken audio to be delivered so quickly that most people cannot read its verbatim captioning, which seems counter-productive to the goal of equal access.
Additional research is needed to determine how fast captions should appear on the screen and what presentation rates people prefer. These critically important issues have only partially been addressed. But there is an existing body of research and study that supports the DCMP policy and philosophy. Much of this documentation can be reviewed in its entirety from the DCMP clearinghouse. Notes on these studies follow.
Download the Captioning Presentation Rate Research document [PDF].
Experts don't always agree on rules for writing numbers or numerals. Captionists should follow a standard style manual, remembering to be consistent, or use this relatively detailed overview.
- Unless otherwise specified below, spell out all numbers from one to ten, but use numerals for all numbers over ten. Examples:
InappropriateThe fifty-four DVDs
need to be shelved.
AppropriateThe 54 DVDs
need to be shelved.
InappropriateHe's at the thirty, the twenty,
AppropriateHe's at the 30, the 20,
- Spell out any number that begins a sentence as well as any related numbers. Example:
Two hundred guests
and eleven guides entered.
- Spell out casual, nonemphatic numbers. Example:
He gave me
hundreds of reasons.
- Numerals with four digits can either have a comma or not. Be consistent throughout the media production. For numerals having over five digits, a comma is necessary. Example:
- Use numerals in a listing of numbers if one or more is above ten and these occur in one caption or one sentence. Example:
InappropriateSteven has 21 books,
11 oranges, and three cats.
AppropriateSteven has 21 books,
11 oranges, and 3 cats.
- Use numerals when referring to technical and athletic terms. Example:
He scored 3 goals
in today's game!
- When indicating sequence, capitalize the noun and use numerals. Exceptions are the indication of line, note, page, paragraph, size, step, or verse. Examples:
Building 2page 31Channel 5size 12Chapter IIIstep 3Room 438paragraph 2
- Use the numeral plus the lowercase "th," "st," or "nd" when a day of the month is mentioned by itself (no month is referred to). Example:
Captioned AsBob went fishing
on the 9th.
- When the day precedes the month, use the numeral plus the lowercase "th," "st," or "nd" if the ending is spoken. Example:
Captioned AsMy birthday is
the 17th of June.
- Use the numeral alone when the day follows the month. Example:
Captioned AsI will meet you
on May 9.
Original Narration"nine" or "ninth"
- When the month, day, and year are spoken, use the numeral alone for the day, even if an ending ("th," "st," or "nd") is spoken. Example:
Captioned AsPaul will marry on July 6, 1996.
Original Narration"six" or "sixth"
- Indicate time of day with numerals only. Examples:
I awoke at 5:17.If you wish to attend,
you must arrive by 6:25 p.m.We were expected to report
no later than 1400 hours.I awoke at 4 o'clock.
- Always use numerals when the abbreviation "a.m." or "p.m." is present. Double zeros are not necessary to indicate minutes of the hour when a whole number is used with a.m. or p.m. Examples:
She leaves at 3:20 p.m.
for the airport.Our hours are
from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.We're leaving
at 6 in the morning.
Periods of Time
- A decade should be captioned as "the 1980s" (not "the 1980's") and "the '50s" (not "the 50's").
- If a decade or century is in noun form, do not use hyphens. Example:
This vase is
from the 17th century.
- If a period of time is used as an adjective, use a hyphen. Example:
This 19th-century painting
was done by Van Gogh.
- Either spell out or use numerals for fractions, keeping this rule consistent throughout the media. If using numerals, insert a space between a whole number and its fraction. Example:
Numeral UsedDo you plan
to eat 1 ½ pizzas?
Fraction Spelled OutDo you plan to eat
one and one-half pizzas?
- Do not mix numerals and spelled-out words within the same sentence. Example:
InappropriateMalika is 13
and a half years old.
13 ½ years old.
- If a fraction is used with "million," "billion," "trillion," etc., spell out the fraction. Example:
The population was
over one-half million.
- Fractions expressed in figures should not be followed by endings, such as "sts," "rds," "nds," or "ths." Example:
- Use numerals and the percent sign to indicate all percentages except at the beginning of a sentence. Examples:
Middle of SentenceOnly 6% of the votes
Beginning of SentenceFifty-one percent of the people
- Use the numeral plus "cents" or "¢" for amounts under one dollar. Examples:
I need 15 cents.I owe you 32¢.
- Use the dollar sign plus the numeral for dollar amounts under one million. For whole-dollar amounts of one million and greater, spell out "million," "billion," etc. Examples:
John brought only $11.Bob brought $6.12.The budget of $13,000 will be sufficient.Taxes will be reduced by a total of $13 million.He owes $13,656,000.
- Use the word "dollar" only once for a range up to ten. Example:
I hope to find
three or four dollars.
- Use the dollar sign and numerals when captioning a range of currency over ten dollars. Example:
Alice expected a raise
of $6,000 to $7,000.
- Spell out units of measurement, such as "inches," "feet," "yards," "miles," "ounces," "pounds," and "tablespoons." However, if spoken in shortened form, symbols should be used. For example, if the original narration is "I'm five eight," it should be captioned as:
- For whole numbers, use numerals. For example, caption "3 cups of sugar" instead of "three cups of sugar."
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